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Neanderthal DNA (Read 31444 times)
freediver
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Neanderthal DNA
May 13th, 2014 at 6:59pm
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neanderthal_genome_project

The Neanderthal genome project is a collaboration of scientists to sequence the Neanderthal genome.

...

According to preliminary sequences, 99.7% of the base pairs of the modern human and Neanderthal genomes are identical, compared to humans sharing around 98.8% of base pairs with the chimpanzee.[5] (Other studies concerning the commonality between chimps and humans have modified the commonality of 98% to a commonality of only 94%, showing that the genetic gap between humans and chimps is far larger than originally thought.)[6][7]

The researchers recovered ancient DNA of Neanderthals by extracting the DNA from the femur bones of three 38,000-year-old female Neanderthal specimens from Vindija Cave, Croatia, and other bones found in Spain, Russia, and Germany.[8] Only about half a gram of the bone samples (or 21 samples each 50-100 mg[9]) was required for the sequencing, but the project faced many difficulties, including the contamination of the samples by the bacteria that had colonized the Neanderthal's body and humans who handled the bones at the excavation site and at the laboratory.[10]

...

In May 2010, the project released a draft of their report on the sequenced Neanderthal genome. Contradicting the results discovered while examining mitochondrial DNA, they demonstrated a range of genetic contribution to non-African modern humans ranging from 1% to 4%. From their Homo sapiens samples in Eurasia (French, Han Chinese & Papuan) the authors state that it is likely that interbreeding occurred in the Levant before Homo sapiens migrated into Europe.[21] However, this finding is disputed because of the paucity of archeological evidence supporting their statement. The fossil evidence does not conclusively place Neanderthals and modern humans in close proximity at this time and place.[22]

http://www.foxnews.com/science/2014/01/29/your-inner-neanderthal-fossil-bits-neanderthal-dna/

Scientists isolated the parts of the non-African modern human genetic blueprint that still contain Neanderthal remnants. Overall, it's barely more than 1 percent, said two studies released Wednesday in the journals Nature and Science.

However, in some places, such as the DNA related to the skin, the genetic instructions are as much as 70 percent Neanderthal and in other places there's virtually nothing from the species that's often portrayed as brutish cavemen.

Sarah Tishkoff, a professor of genetics and biology at the University of Pennsylvania who was not part of either study, theorized that the Neanderthal DNA probably helped the darker humans out of Africa cope with the cooler less bright north. Living in the cooler Europe means less ultraviolet light and less vitamin D from the sun. Darker skin blocks more of those needed rays, so lighter skin is more advantageous in the north and it seems that humans adopted that Neanderthal adaptation, she said.

Another area where we have more Neanderthal DNA is parts of genetic codes that have to do with certain immune system functions, Sankararaman said. Again, scientists can't say more than that these Neanderthal genes seem connected to certain diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and Crohn's disease and lupus, but they are there.

The Nature paper found that people of more East Asian descent had slightly more Neanderthal than Europeans, indicating that there may have been a second wave of interbreeding in Asia, researchers said.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neanderthal

With an average cranial capacity of 1600 cc,[19] Neanderthal's cranial capacity is notably larger than the 1400 cc average for modern humans, indicating that their brain size was larger. However, due to larger body size, Neanderthals are less encephalized.[20] In 2008, a group of scientists produced a study using three-dimensional computer-assisted reconstructions of Neanderthal infants based on fossils found in Russia and Syria. The study indicated that Neanderthal and modern human brains were the same size at birth, but by adulthood, the Neanderthal brain was larger than the modern human brain.[21] They were much stronger than modern humans, having particularly strong arms and hands.[22] Males stood 164–168 cm (65–66 in) and females about 152–156 cm (60–61 in) tall.[23]

Genetic evidence published in 2010 suggests that Neanderthals contributed to the DNA of anatomically modern humans, probably through interbreeding between 80,000 and 28,000 years ago with a population of anatomically modern humans. According to the study, by the time that population began dispersing across Eurasia, Neanderthal genes constituted as much as 1–4% of its genome (roughly equivalent to having one Neanderthal great-great-great-grandparent).[24][25][26] Ötzi the iceman, Europe's oldest preserved mummy, was found to possess an even higher percentage of Neanderthal ancestry.[27] Recent findings suggest there may be even more Neanderthal genes in non-African humans than previously expected: approximately 20% of the Neanderthal gene pool was present in a broad sampling of non-African individuals, yet each individual's genome was only 2% Neanderthal.[28]

...
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Re: Neanderthal DNA
Reply #1 - May 13th, 2014 at 7:43pm
 
freediver wrote on May 13th, 2014 at 6:59pm:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neanderthal_genome_project

The Neanderthal genome project is a collaboration of scientists to sequence the Neanderthal genome.

...

The researchers recovered ancient DNA of Neanderthals by extracting the DNA from the femur bones of three 38,000-year-old female Neanderthal specimens from Vindija Cave, Croatia, and other bones found in Spain, Russia, and Germany.[8] Only about half a gram of the bone samples (or 21 samples each 50-100 mg[9]) was required for the sequencing, but the project faced many difficulties, including the contamination of the samples by the bacteria that had colonized the Neanderthal's body and humans who handled the bones at the excavation site and at the laboratory.[10]

...




Did the femur bones of three 38,000-year-old female Neanderthal specimens come with convenient 'date stamps' ?

Or, were these bones subjected to carbon dating, a process which can accurately determine the age of tested specimens coz....., er coz, er coz..... ?






Yadda, from another forum...

Quote:
CONTINUED FROM LAST POST.....

#2,
Further,
Evolution 'science' sometimes uses the [assumed!] age of fossils in sediment, to date a 'geologic layer'.
Evolution 'science' does this, as a 'method' to set a 'datum' for dating different, but adjacent geologic layers.
But then, evolution 'science' also sometimes uses the [assumed!] age of geologic layers, to date the fossils which a geologic layer contains!!
That is not a 'scientific' method, as proof of the age of anything!
It is the use of circular, fallacious reasoning to 'prove' the 'veracity' of a false hypothesis.
The 'logic' of these 'scientists' goes;
'Geologic layers are clearly very old, and therefore it follows that the fossils found within those 'geologic layers' must also be very old.'

MORE.....

++++++++

CONTINUED FROM LAST POST.....

That type of 'scientific' logic defies common sense.
Doesn't it?

Google,
circular reasoning dating geologic layers and fossils

Google,
carbon dating flaws

Google,
radiometric dating flaws

Google,
radiometric dating deception

Google,
paleomagnetism dating unreliable

All scientific dating methods [of rocks] are dependent upon certain suppositions being made, and being uncritically accepted.
If those suppositions are in error, the result of the dating process must also be in error.
Scientists use the 'known' 'half life' period of isotopes within certain elements, to calculate a rate of decay, and then determine their current age.

MORE.....

++++++++

CONTINUED FROM LAST POST.....

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"....And he said unto him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead."
Luke 16:31
 
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Re: Neanderthal DNA
Reply #2 - May 15th, 2014 at 9:55pm
 
I'm surprised the racists aren't onto this. Maybe they are still figuring out how they can spin it.
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Re: Neanderthal DNA
Reply #3 - May 18th, 2014 at 6:38pm
 
Yes, "All scientific dating methods [of rocks] are dependent upon certain suppositions being made, and being uncritically accepted.". But I would differ about the "uncritically accepted" bit.
Science involves looking at a wide variety of evidence; sometimes one piece seems to contradict another, and a scientist is able to boost his reputation by pointing out the discrepancy, at the cost of someone who has not fully studied the subject pointing the "You're wrong!" finger.
There is an assumption at the base of "evolution science". It is the assumption that things happened millennia ago much as they do today. If a radio-active substance seems to decay today, losing half its substance in 1.248×10 to the power 9 years , then it probably did the same 100 million years ago.
There is another assumption: that there exists an omnipotent, omnipresent, Omni .... entity, which arbitrarily created the Universe, and studded it with traps such as fossils which appear to be 100 million years old when they are less than 10,000. It also dictated books about this, and some of its believers believe they have a duty to kill those who don't believe.
Choose one of these two assumptions, and enjoy working out where it leads you!
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Re: Neanderthal DNA
Reply #4 - Jul 22nd, 2017 at 10:54pm
 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denisovan

Analysis of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the finger bone showed it to be genetically distinct from the mtDNAs of Neanderthals and modern humans.[9] Subsequent study of the nuclear genome from this specimen suggests that Denisovans shared a common origin with Neanderthals, that they ranged from Siberia to Southeast Asia, and that they lived among and interbred with the ancestors of some modern humans, with about 3% to 5% of the DNA of Melanesians and Aboriginal Australians deriving from Denisovans.

A detailed comparison of the Denisovan, Neanderthal, and human genomes has revealed evidence for a complex web of interbreeding among the lineages. Through such interbreeding, 17% of the Denisova genome represents DNA from the local Neanderthal population, while evidence was also found of a contribution to the nuclear genome from an ancient hominin lineage yet to be identified,[14] perhaps the source of the anomalously ancient mtDNA. DNA from this archaic species represents as much as 8% of the Denisovan genome.[36]

Analysis of genomes of modern humans show that they mated with at least two groups of Archaic humans: Neanderthals (more similar to those found in the Caucasus than those from the Altai region)[14] and Denisovans.[21][24][37] Approximately 4% of the DNA of non-African modern humans is shared with Neanderthals, suggesting interbreeding.[24] Tests comparing the Denisova hominin genome with those of six modern humans – a ǃKung from South Africa, a Nigerian, a Frenchman, a Papua New Guinean, a Bougainville Islander and a Han Chinese – showed that between 4% and 6% of the genome of Melanesians (represented by the Papua New Guinean and Bougainville Islander) derives from a Denisovan population; a later study puts the amount at 1.11% (with an additional contribution from some different and yet unknown ancestor).[38] This DNA was possibly introduced during the early migration to Melanesia. These findings are in concordance with the results of other comparison tests which show a relative increase in allele sharing between the Denisovan and the Aboriginal Australian genome, compared to other Eurasians and African populations; however, it has been observed that Papuans, the population of Papua New Guinea, have more allele sharing than Aboriginal Australians.[39]

Melanesians are not the only modern-day descendants of Denisovans. David Reich of Harvard University, in collaboration with Mark Stoneking of the Planck Institute team, found genetic evidence that Denisovan ancestry is shared by Melanesians, Australian Aborigines, and smaller scattered groups of people in South-East Asia, such as the Mamanwa, a Negrito people in the Philippines. However, not all Negritos were found to possess Denisovan genes; Onge Andaman Islanders and Malaysian Jehai, for example, were found to have no significant Denisovan inheritance. These data place the interbreeding event in mainland South-East Asia, and suggest that Denisovans once ranged widely over eastern Asia.[40][41][42] Based on the modern distribution of Denisova DNA, Denisovans may have crossed the Wallace Line, with Wallacea serving as their last refugium.[43][44] A paper by Kay Prüfer in 2013 said that mainland Asians and Native Americans had around 0.2% Denisovan ancestry.[45]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaic_human_admixture_with_modern_humans

The archaic human admixture with modern humans is thought to have been taken place through interbreeding of modern humans with Neanderthals, Denisovans, or possibly other archaic humans over the course of human history. Neanderthal-derived DNA accounts for an estimated 1–4% of the Eurasian genome, but it is significantly absent or uncommon in the genome of most Sub-Saharan African people. In Oceanian and Southeast Asian populations, there is a relative increase of Denisovan-derived DNA. An estimated 4–6% of the Melanesian genome is derived from Denisovans. Recent non-comparative DNA analyses—as no specimens have been discovered—suggest that African populations have a genetic contribution from a now-extinct archaic African hominin population.

...
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Re: Neanderthal DNA
Reply #5 - Jul 22nd, 2017 at 11:07pm
 
What would be your summary of this finding Freediver.
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Re: Neanderthal DNA
Reply #6 - Jul 22nd, 2017 at 11:17pm
 
We really arent all the same under our skin.
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Re: Neanderthal DNA
Reply #7 - Jul 22nd, 2017 at 11:52pm
 
Lot of that going around.....
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Re: Neanderthal DNA
Reply #8 - Jul 22nd, 2017 at 11:54pm
 
Grappler Truth Teller Feller wrote on Jul 22nd, 2017 at 11:52pm:
Lot of that going around.....


I think Donincog implied you have a bit of Neanderthal, Grap. Is it true? Grin
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Re: Neanderthal DNA
Reply #9 - Jul 23rd, 2017 at 9:25am
 
Setanta wrote on Jul 22nd, 2017 at 11:54pm:
Grappler Truth Teller Feller wrote on Jul 22nd, 2017 at 11:52pm:
Lot of that going around.....


I think Donincog implied you have a bit of Neanderthal, Grap. Is it true? Grin



Must be true if Don implied it  Grin
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Re: Neanderthal DNA
Reply #10 - Jul 23rd, 2017 at 11:26am
 
Yadda wrote on May 13th, 2014 at 7:43pm:
Did the femur bones of three 38,000-year-old female Neanderthal specimens come with convenient 'date stamps' ?

Or, were these bones subjected to carbon dating, a process which can accurately determine the age of tested specimens coz....., er coz, er coz..... ?



Carbon dating measures the amount of Carbon14 in a specimen.
This dates the specimen because when living tissue dies the amount of carbon14 reduces at a known rate (called it's half life)
So scientifically speaking, yes it did have a date stamp.

http://theconversation.com/explainer-what-is-radiocarbon-dating-and-how-does-it-...
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Re: Neanderthal DNA
Reply #11 - Jul 23rd, 2017 at 7:18pm
 
It's a very interesting subject that has become popular around the world as it is showing everyone how well we are all from the same tribe - long, long ago. Heidelbergensis.

Sure, there were x3 'off-shoot' tribes that struck it out alone for awhile.
Neanderthals in Europe/Middle-East
Denisovians in Asia
'mystery X' in Africa

...then some mixed up Sapien lot emerged to breed with all of them.

The Neanderthal were mostly 'cave dwellers' and never ventured far for their resources - they were not as Nomadic as the Sapiens who 'followed the food' and its this lack of diversity was probably their downfall ...until there was so few of them left, they were probably hunted as 'Evil Ogres or Trolls' in Caves in their twilight.

I personally think that when Sapiens spread out into the world - there were many different species of modern Homo and ancient Hominids still roaming around - giving rise to legends and myths along the way. Eventually though, they either faded into the Sapien tree or died out in isolation.

San Bushmen have the most number of 'ancient genetic' combinations - their gene pool is the most varied, which is ironic, considering as a 'people' they are the most ...few.

In the end though - all males will be 'Dominant Gene' and females will be 'Regressive Gene'.
Black Groom - White Bride  Wink

Grin Grin Grin Grin
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Re: Neanderthal DNA
Reply #12 - Jul 24th, 2017 at 12:23am
 
Jasin wrote on Jul 23rd, 2017 at 7:18pm:
It's a very interesting subject that has become popular around the world as it is showing everyone how well we are all from the same tribe - long, long ago. Heidelbergensis.

Sure, there were x3 'off-shoot' tribes that struck it out alone for awhile.
Neanderthals in Europe/Middle-East
Denisovians in Asia
'mystery X' in Africa

...then some mixed up Sapien lot emerged to breed with all of them.

The Neanderthal were mostly 'cave dwellers' and never ventured far for their resources - they were not as Nomadic as the Sapiens who 'followed the food' and its this lack of diversity was probably their downfall ...until there was so few of them left, they were probably hunted as 'Evil Ogres or Trolls' in Caves in their twilight.

I personally think that when Sapiens spread out into the world - there were many different species of modern Homo and ancient Hominids still roaming around - giving rise to legends and myths along the way. Eventually though, they either faded into the Sapien tree or died out in isolation.

San Bushmen have the most number of 'ancient genetic' combinations - their gene pool is the most varied, which is ironic, considering as a 'people' they are the most ...few.

In the end though - all males will be 'Dominant Gene' and females will be 'Regressive Gene'.
Black Groom - White Bride  Wink

Grin Grin Grin Grin


How do you know Neanderthal were cave dwellers? Most humans used caves and rock shelters. Were Aboriginals cave dwellers? They certainly used caves and rock shelters as their paintings will attest. Then we have the replacers of Neanderthal using caves and rock shelters as paintings in Lascaux and Altamira will attest.

Do you have some sort of genetic memory going on? I don't fear the genetic future of man, just as his genetic past allowed me to be. Nothing stays constant.

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Re: Neanderthal DNA
Reply #13 - Jul 24th, 2017 at 1:53am
 
Personally I'd love to have a full on DNA test.
This must be one of the MOST interesting areas of earth-based research today.
Like Archaeology, which continues to uncover fascinating historical artifacts.


Er and I'm ignorant of much recent work.
What are Denisovians?
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Re: Neanderthal DNA
Reply #14 - Jul 24th, 2017 at 12:34pm
 
Setanta wrote on Jul 24th, 2017 at 12:23am:
Jasin wrote on Jul 23rd, 2017 at 7:18pm:
It's a very interesting subject that has become popular around the world as it is showing everyone how well we are all from the same tribe - long, long ago. Heidelbergensis.

Sure, there were x3 'off-shoot' tribes that struck it out alone for awhile.
Neanderthals in Europe/Middle-East
Denisovians in Asia
'mystery X' in Africa

...then some mixed up Sapien lot emerged to breed with all of them.

The Neanderthal were mostly 'cave dwellers' and never ventured far for their resources - they were not as Nomadic as the Sapiens who 'followed the food' and its this lack of diversity was probably their downfall ...until there was so few of them left, they were probably hunted as 'Evil Ogres or Trolls' in Caves in their twilight.

I personally think that when Sapiens spread out into the world - there were many different species of modern Homo and ancient Hominids still roaming around - giving rise to legends and myths along the way. Eventually though, they either faded into the Sapien tree or died out in isolation.

San Bushmen have the most number of 'ancient genetic' combinations - their gene pool is the most varied, which is ironic, considering as a 'people' they are the most ...few.

In the end though - all males will be 'Dominant Gene' and females will be 'Regressive Gene'.
Black Groom - White Bride  Wink

Grin Grin Grin Grin


How do you know Neanderthal were cave dwellers? Most humans used caves and rock shelters. Were Aboriginals cave dwellers? They certainly used caves and rock shelters as their paintings will attest. Then we have the replacers of Neanderthal using caves and rock shelters as paintings in Lascaux and Altamira will attest.

Do you have some sort of genetic memory going on? I don't fear the genetic future of man, just as his genetic past allowed me to be. Nothing stays constant.



Apparently modern humans were a lot more nomadic. Aborigines for example used caves, but didn't live in them permanently.
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